This electronically delivered self-instructional program is designated for 1.5 hours of CE credit by Farran Media.
There is no fee to view this course. There is a fee of $36 to take the exam and claim CE credits for this course.
Torque in the orthodontic field is controlled by rectangular slots in the bracket which accommodate rectangular archwires and is expressed when an archwire comes into contact with the walls within a slot and a force couple is formed. In order for desirable physiologic forces to be maintained, a certain degree of slop between the wire and bracket interface is necessary. The formula in this paper simply calculates theoretical slop, assuming that absolute archwire stiffness, perfect archwires and bracket slot geometry exist.
The degrees of slop were calculated for the different dimensional square and rectangular archwires in 0.022- and 0.018-inch bracket slot systems and varied significantly. Dimensional precision of brackets and archwires is required to take both torque expression and the wire/slot play into account. Torque must be adjusted in a controlled manner so biological tooth movements can still occur. The relative slop between different archwire options is significant to our understanding of forces and positively improves the clinical accuracy in the orthodontic field.
Description of Speaker:
Dr. Elizabeth R. Michalczyk completed her Bachelor of Science in neurobiology at the University of Michigan. She then underwent her graduate studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she was granted her DMD and PhD in tissue regeneration. Michalczyk is currently undergoing her residency program in orthodontics.
Dr. Noam Green completed his DMD at the University of Pennsylvania. He completed his orthodontic residency at the University of Detroit Mercy. Green then earned his Master of Science and now works as an orthodontist.
Dr. Alise Senderak completed her DDS at the University of Maryland and is currently undergoing her orthodontic residency program.
Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to achieve the following:
- Why third-order movements involving torque are most effectively expressed using rectangular archwires.
- What type of movement is controlled by rectangular slots and accommodates rectangular archwires.
- The relative degrees of slop between different archwire dimensions within a given bracket system.
- Why an archwire with height that more closely approximates the bracket slot height corresponds to a lesser degree of slop.
- Why 0.022-inch bracket slot systems introduce more slop with the same dimension archwire and affect the range of archwires.
- The formula proposed in this course and how it provides a simple way to mathematically define the degree of theoretical torque loss, or slop.
The authors declare that neither they nor any member of their families have a financial arrangement or affiliation with any corporate organization offering financial support or grant monies for this continuing dental education program.
Farran Media is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider. ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association
to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not
approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards
of dentistry. Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to ADA CERP at
For any questions, please contact Howard Goldstein, DMD, Director of Continuing Education at
This activity meets the educational criteria required for verifiable Continuing Professional Development under the General Dental Council Lifelong Learning scheme and represents 1.5 hours of verifiable CPD.
The CE provider (Farran Media) uses reasonable care in selecting and
providing content that is accurate. The CE provider, however, does not
independently verify the content or materials. The CE provider does not
represent that the instructional materials are error-free or that the content
or materials are comprehensive. Any opinions expressed in the materials are
those of the author of the materials and not the CE provider. Completing one or
more continuing education courses does not provide sufficient information to
qualify the participant as an expert in the field related to the course topic
or in any specific technique or procedure. The instructional materials are
intended to supplement, but are not a substitute for, the knowledge, expertise,
skill and judgment of a trained health care professional.
Continuing education credits issued for completion of online CE courses may not apply toward
license renewal in all licensing jurisdictions. It is the responsibility of each registrant
to verify the CE requirements of his/her licensing or regulatory agency.
State CE Requirements:
for CE requirements by state. Please note that this information is current as of the time of listing. This information is subject to change at any time from the state boards. For the most up-to-date information, please contact your state board directly.
There are no refunds for Online CE courses. Please contact technical support if you run into technical difficulty.
For any questions, please contact Howard Goldstein, DMD, Director of Continuing Education